# Aerospace Vehicle Design Project and Research Centre in Anantapur

WINGS OF AERO – An Aerospace Startup registered under MSME[Govt. of India] provides services to solve aerospace and aeronautical problems using our advanced knowledgable Engineers and Scientists. WINGS OF AERO is already having years of experience for aerospace problem solving.

WINGS OF AERO successfully solved various problems and completed numerous projects for the industrial engineers and also engineering students with advanced topics which includes Aerospace Vehicle Design, Aerospace Component Design, Hypersonic Vehicle Dynamics, Composite Materials, 3D Printing, Model Rocket Flight Testing, etc., Students from various parts of the world are prefering our problem solving service through both online/offline. For more details or project quotation enquire about us at https://wingsofaero.in or mail us to contact@wingsofaero.in

The following sub domains are taken into consideration for the research work and project:

1] Aerodynamics Research and Projects –

Fluid Motion: Streamlines, pathlines, steady vs. unsteady, rotation and vorticity, boundary layer |

Viscous Flow: Incompressible, Simple solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer equations: exact solutions, Blasius solution, pressure gradient effects, Physics of turbulence and its effects, turbulent flat plate solutions, factors affecting transition, Momentum Integral Method, Thwaites Method, Head’s Method, Squire-Young formula for drag, empirical methods for transition estimate, Michel’s Criteria, Overview of Non-Newtonian fluid effects on skin friction Compressible

Potential Flow: Derivation of Velocity Potential Equations for Compressible and Incompressible Flows

Low Speed Aerodynamics: Elementary solutions for incompressible Potential Flow: uniform flow, source/sink, doublet, vortex, Flow around 2-D cylinder, concept of circulation, Kutta-Joukowsky Theorem, drag in separated flow, Cp distribution, Airfoils, Thin Airfoil Theory, Kutta Condition, Cl, Cm, lift curve slope, center of pressure, aerodynamic center, Overview of panel methods, numerical tools for prediction of skin friction drag around airfoils.

Wings: Physical characteristics, trailing vortices, vortex sheet, starting vortex, downwash, induced drag, effect of aspect ratio, Prandtl’s lifting line theory and numerical tools, Induced drag, elliptical lift distribution, span efficiency factor, drag polars including viscous effects, Vortex dominated flows and leading edge vortices

High Speed Aerodynamics: Derivation of Linearized Potential Flow Equation, small disturbance approximations, Subsonic Flow over Airfoils, Prandtl-Glauert Rule, compressibility corrections and effects on lift, drag and Cp distribution, Subsonic Flow over Wings and Bodies, Modifications to lifting line analysis to include compressibility effects, Potential Flow over Body of Revolution using Gothert’s Rule, closed form expressions for Cp and Cd, Transonic Effects on Airfoils, Wings and Bodies of Revolution, Transonic flow effects on Cl, Cd, Cm and Cp, finding Critical Mach Number of airfoils and bodies of revolution, Wave drag, Drag divergence; elimination of drag rise by sweep, area rule, supercritical airfoils, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow Prediction, Determination of lift and drag using linearized supersonic flow, shock-expansion wave theory, Newtonian Theory, Modified Newtonian Theory.

2] Aerospace Structures Research and Projects –

Aerospace Structural Design Principles (Energy Methods, Beam Bending)

Plate Theory: Thin Plate Theory, Stress Resultants and Kinematics, Thin Plate Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions.

Advanced Concepts in Buckling of Lightweight Structures: Thin Plate Solutions and Plate Buckling, Local and Global-Local Buckling of Thin Walled Structures.

Composite Materials: Introduction to Advanced Fiber Composites, Analysis of Orthotropic Composite Plies, Analysis of Composite Laminates – Stiffness Matrix, Analysis of Composite Laminates – Stress and Strain, Analysis of Composite Laminates – Thermal Expansion, Failure Mechanisms and Analysis.

Introductory Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity: Introduction to Structural Vibration, Beam Free Vibration, Forced Response of a Beam Structure, Airfoil and Wing Divergence, Wing Divergence, Swept Wings, Control Effectiveness and Reversal, Airfoil Flutter, Wing Flutter, Swept Wings

3] Propulsion Research and Projects –

Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Fluid Flow: Control volumes and thrust equation, First and second laws of thermodynamics, gas properties, fundamental energy balances, Chemical reactions and equilibrium.

One-Dimensional Flow: Brief review of 1-D compressible isentropic flow — Non-isentropic flow

Airbreathing Engines: Turbine engines and ramjets — Thermodynamics, performance, and efficiencies

Inlets, Combustors, and Nozzles, Compressors and Turbines: Euler momentum equation, basic concepts — Axial compressor and turbine on-design analysis — Centrifugal compressor/pump on-design analysis — Compressor/turbine maps

Rockets: Rocket types and performance parameters — The rocket equation — Staging — Space and launch missions

Liquid Rocket Engines: Cycles — Combustion chambers and combustor heat transfer — Nozzles: types, flow, and thermochemistry

Rocket Combustion and Expansion: Propellants — Solid rocket motors — Combustion instability

4] Flight Mechanics Research and Projects –

Aircraft Performance: Takeoff, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Landing, Pull up and down, Banking, Turning, Gliding, Flight Testing

Aircraft Static Stability and Control: Longitudinal Static Stability, Longitudinal Control, Directional Stability and Control, Roll Stability and Roll Control

Static Aeroelastic Phenomena: Divergence analysis using a Spring restrained Airfoil Model, Location of Elastic Axis versus Aerodynamic Center, Torsional Divergence, Sweep Effects, Aileron Reversal

Aircraft Equations of Motion: Coordinate Systems and transformations, Derivatives in Rotating Frames, Translational Equations, Rotational Equations, Effect of spinning rotors

Linearization: Small Disturbance Theory, Aerodynamic Force and Moment Derivatives Lateral-Directional, Equations of Motion, Equations of Motion in a Non-uniform Atmosphere

Aircraft Longitudinal Dynamics: Review of modal analysis, Longitudinal Motion, Approximations, Influence of Stability Derivatives, Transfer Functions, Flying Qualities

Aircraft Lateral Dynamics: Lateral-Directional Equations, Dutch Roll, Roll and Spiral Modes, Modal Analysis, Approximate Models, Transfer Functions, Flying Qualities

Dynamic Aeroelastic Phenomena: Lift Deficiency Function, Flutter Analysis using a 2DOF Pitch-Plunge Model, Wing Flutter

Aircraft Flight Control System Design: Longitudinal SAS and SCAS Designs, Lateral SAS and SCAS Designs

5] Avonics Research and Projects –

DIGITAL AVIONICS ARCHITECTURE: Avionics system architecture – data buses – MIL-STD-1553B – ARINC – 420 – ARINC – 629.

FLIGHT DECKS AND COCKPITS: Control and display technologies: CRT, LED, LCD, EL and plasma panel – Touch screen – Direct voice input (DVI) – Civil and Military Cockpits: MFDS, HUD, MFK, HOTAS.

AIR DATA SYSTEMS AND AUTO PILOT: Air data quantities – Altitude, Air speed, Vertical speed, Mach Number, Total air temperature, Mach warning, Altitude warning – Auto pilot – Basic principles, Longitudinal and lateral auto pilot.

6] Space Mechanics Research and Projects –

SPACE ENVIRONMENT: Peculiarities of space environment and its description– effect of space environment on materials of spacecraft structure and astronauts- manned space missions – effect on satellite life time

THE GENERAL N- BODY PROBLEM: The solar system – reference frames and coordinate systems – terminology related to the celestial sphere and its associated concepts – Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and proof of the laws – Newton’s universal law of gravitation – the many body problem – Lagrange-Jacobi identity – the circular restricted three body problem – libration points – the general N-body problem – two body problem – relations between position and time.

SATELLITE INJECTION AND SATELLITE PERTURBATIONS: General aspects of satellite injection – satellite orbit transfer – various cases – orbit deviations due to injection errors – special and general perturbations – Cowell’s method and Encke’s method – method of variations of orbital elements – general perturbations approach.

INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES: Two-dimensional interplanetary trajectories – fast interplanetary trajectories – three dimensional interplanetary trajectories – launch of interplanetary spacecraft – trajectory estimation about the target planet – concept of sphere of influence – Lambert’s theorem

BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES: Introduction to ballistic missile trajectories – boost phase – the ballistic phase – trajectory geometry – optimal flights – time of flight – re-entry phase – the position of impact point – influence coefficients.

7] Manufacturing Technology Research and Projects –

Aircraft Assembly: • Joining techniques: bolts, rivets. • Assembly jigs and fixtures. • Aircraft assembly layouts and processes. • Automated fastening machines. • Sealants and adhesives. • Automation in aircraft assembly. • Application of metrology. • Quality processes. • Certification and validation. • Technology introduction.

Manufacturing Strategy: • Competitive manufacturing strategy concepts. • Benchmarking of manufacturing system performance. • Manufacturing strategy in business success. • Strategy formation and formulation, leading on to system design. • Structured strategy formulation and system design methodologies. • Approaches to strategy formulation in differing business contexts. • Realisation of new strategies/system designs, including approaches to implementation. • Case study on design of competitive manufacturing strategy.

Manufacturing Systems Engineering: • Introduction to modelling: taxonomy, overview of methods and techniques. • Design of manufacturing layouts. • Group Technology & Cellular manufacturing in the context of Human centred factory design. • Manufacturing Systems modelling using discrete-event simulation, Systems dynamics and Agent-based simulation techniques and methodologies. • Case study Analysis of manufacturing systems using simulation.

Operations Management: An introduction to manufacturing and service activities. Capacity, demand and load; identifying key capacity determinant; order-size mix problem; coping with changes in demand. Standard times, and how to calculate them; process analysis and supporting tools; process simplification. What quality is; standards and frameworks; quality tools; quality in the supply chain.
Scheduling rules; scheduling and nested set-ups. Roles of inventory; dependent and independent demand; Economic Order Quantity; uncertain demand; inventory management systems and measures. Information systems – at operational, managerial, and strategic levels; bills of material; MRP, MPRll and ERP systems. Ohno’s 7 wastes; Just-in-Time systems (including the Toyota Production System, and Kanbans). Class discussion of cases, exercises, and videos to support this syllabus.

Supply Chain Management: Supply chain concepts, Supply chain strategy, Relationship management, Supplier Selection and Evaluation, Supplier Sustainability, Supply chain Planning, Design & Operating SC, Outsourcing Product Design and Manufacturing.

Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing Technologies: • Metal cutting processes and practice. • Abrasive machining processes and practice • Non-conventional machining including photochemical machining and associated metal removal and addition processes. • Micro machining and micro moulding. • Machine tool components and machine-materials interactions, metrology.

• Fundamentals of lasers, optics and fibre optics
• Laser welding including micro-welding and hybrid processes
• Introduction to laser processing
• Laser material interactions
• Laser powder melting
• Laser wire melting
• Laser sources, optics and fibre optics
• Solid state welding processes
• Friction welding
• Dissimilar material welding
• Remote underwater welding
• Weld metal engineering
• Electron beam welding
• Process monitoring
• Other laser processes (e.g. laser peening)
• Material characteristics and response to laser
• Weld metal engineering
• Laser safety

Composites Manufacturing for High Performance Structures:

• Background to thermosetting and thermoplastic polymer matrix composites.
• Practical demonstrations – lab work.
• Overview of established manufacturing processes, developing processes, automation and machining.
• Introduction to emerging process developments; automation, textile preforming, through thickness reinforcement.
• Design for manufacture, assembly techniques and manufacturing cost.
• Case studies from aerospace, automotive, motorsport, marine and energy sectors.
• DVD demonstrations of all processing routes.

Failure of Materials and Structures:

• Overview of failure behaviour of cracked bodies; crack size influence, brittle and ductile behaviour; influence of material properties. Cyclic loading and chemical environment. Thermodynamic criteria and energy balance; Griffith’s approach, modifications by Orowan. Strain energy release rate, compliance, applications to fibre composites.
• LEFM and crack tip stress fields, stress concentration, stress intensity, plane stress and plane strain. Fracture toughness in metallic materials, fracture toughness testing, calculations of critical defect sizes and failure stress. Crack tip plastic zones; the HRR field, CTOD, J Elastic- plastic failure criteria. Defect assessment failure assessment diagrams.
• Fracture of rigid polymers and standard tests for fracture resistance of polymers. Delamination fatigue tests. Emerging CEN/ISO standards, current ESIS test procedures.
• Crack extension under cyclic loading; Regimes of fatigue crack growth; Influence of material properties and crack tip plastic zones; Calculation of crack growth life and defect assessment in fatigue; Crack closure and variable amplitude loading; Short cracks and the limits of LEFM.
• Software design tools for fatigue crack growth.

Operations Analysis:

• Six Sigma, Process capability, common and special cause variability, control charts, acceptance sampling.

• Lean Manufacturing elements such as Value Stream Mapping and Waste identification.

• Analysis of systems to produce simple models. IDEF0 and IDEF3 and their application. Business process fundamentals and the process review. Improvement procedures, modelling methods and process models. Performance measurement. Responding to and improving reliability.

8] Aircraft Design Research and Projects –

Overview of the Design Process, Airfoil and Geometry Selection, Thrust-to-Weight Ratio and Wing Loading.

Initial Sizing, Control-Surface Sizing, Configuration Layout

Aerodynamic Considerations, Structural Considerations, Vulnerability Considerations

Propulsion and Fuel System Integration, Fuel System, Landing Gear Arrangements

Step-by-Step Development of a New Design, Aerodynamics, Propulsion

Structures and Loads, Weights, Group Weights Method

Stability, Control, and Handling Qualities, Longitudinal Static Stability and Control, Lateral-Directional Static Stability and Control

Performance and Flight Mechanics, Equations of Motion, Operating Envelope

Cost Analysis, Operations and Maintenance Costs, Aircraft and Airline Economics

Sizing and Trade Studies, Vertical Flight–Jet and Prop, Extremes of Flight

Design of Unique Aircraft Concepts, Flying Wing, Tailless, Lifting Fuselage, and Blended Wing-Body, Conceptual Design Examples.

9] Aerospace Vehicle Design Research and Projects –

Space Vehicle Design: requirements, specifications and design process – rocket equation – velocity budget, staging, launch vehicle sizing, launch into an orbit, range safety – rocket propulsion options – configuration and structural design – NGC systems – thermal control – power systems – communication systems – design for reentry – vehicle integration and recovery.

10] Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] Research and Projects –

CFD: Overview of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and capabilities, Understanding and exposure to numerical flow analysis process: grid generation, flow solution, post processing.

11] Finite Element Analysis [FEA] Research and Projects –

ONE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS: One Dimensional Second Order Equations — Discretization — Element types- Linear and Higher order Elements — Derivation of Shape functions and Stiffness matrices and force vectors- Assembly of Matrices — Solution of problems from solid mechanics and heat transfer. Longitudinal vibration frequencies and mode shapes. Fourth Order Beam Equation –Transverse deflections and Natural frequencies of beams.

TWO DIMENSIONAL SCALAR VARIABLE PROBLEMS: Second Order 2D Equations involving Scalar Variable Functions — Variational formulation –Finite Element formulation — Triangular elements — Shape functions and element matrices and vectors. Application to Field Problems — Thermal problems — Torsion of Non circular shafts –Quadrilateral elements — Higher Order Elements.

TWO DIMENSIONAL VECTOR VARIABLE PROBLEMS: Equations of elasticity — Plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric problems — Body forces and temperature effects — Stress calculations — Plate and shell elements.

ISOPARAMETRIC FORMULATION: Natural co-ordinate systems — Isoparametric elements — Shape functions for iso parametric elements — One and two dimensions — Serendipity elements — Numerical integration and application to plane stress problems — Matrix solution techniques — Solutions Techniques to Dynamic problems — Introduction to Analysis Software. ME8692 Finite Element Analysis.

12] RC Aircraft and Drone Research and Projects –

Static stability of various UAVs. Significance of location of Neutral point and Centre of gravity for a stable flight, Approach for wing design and airfoil selection, Tail sizing, control surface sizing and significance of tail volume ratio, Developing subroutine for design process, Design of conventional takeoff fixed wing UAV for various mission requirements, Design for hand launch fixed wing UAV for various mission requirement, Design for VTOL fixed wing UAV for various mission requirement.

For more details or project quotation enquire about us at https://wingsofaero.in or mail us to contact@wingsofaero.in

We do the following service for your research

1] Design, Analysis, Fabrication and Testing

2] Technical Writing, Article, Book Publications

3] Technical Detailed Report about the research work.

4] Undergraduate UG, Post Graduate PG, Doctoral Research Work, Post Doctoral Research Work also can be carried out in our research centre.

Requirements from Client:

1] Requirement Statement