For a horizontal tail or canard, the pitching moments which must be countered are most directly related to the wing mean chord (Cw). This leads to the "horizontal tail volume coefficient,
If the leading edge and trailing edge are parallel, the chord of the wing is constant along the wing's length. ... The average length of the chord is known as the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC).
The planform area is the projection of the wing at zero angle of attack onto a horizontal surface. This can be thought of at the area of the wing’s shadow.
Fuel mass fraction is the ratio of fuel mass flow to the total mass flow of a fuel mixture. If an air flow is fuel free, the fuel mass fraction…