Head loss is a measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system
The magnitude of the peak runoff rate is related to the frequency of occurrence; the higher the peak runoff rate, the less frequently it will occur
Mn is the nominal moment strength of the member, Mu is the bending moment caused by the factored loads, and φ is the capacity reduction factor
It is the shear force generated on the structure due to the force imposed on a given cross-sectional area
It usually designed to use 3 ksi < f'c < 4 ksi, whereas modern structural members frequently use concrete between the range of 4 ksi < f'c < 8 ksi.