## Mach Number Calculator

M = V/a

M is the local Mach number,

V is the local flow velocity with respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like a channel),

a is the speed of sound in the medium, which in air varies with the square root of the thermodynamic temperature.

Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity in fluid dynamics representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound – WIKIPEDIA Classification of Mach Number

## Gravitational Acceleration Calculator Gravitational Acceleration with altitude

In physics, gravitational acceleration is the free fall acceleration of an object in vacuum — without any drag. This is the steady gain in speed caused exclusively by the force of gravitational attraction. At given GPS coordinates on the Earth’s surface and a given altitude, all bodies accelerate in vacuum at the same rate. This equality is true regardless of the masses or compositions of the bodies.

At different points on Earth surface, the free fall acceleration ranges from 9.764 m/s2 to 9.834 m/s2 depending on altitude and latitude, with a conventional standard value of exactly 9.80665 m/s2 (approximately 32.17405 ft/s2). This does not take into account other effects, such as buoyancy or drag  – WIKIPEDIA

## Pressure Calculator using Equation of State Pressure using Equation of State

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy. Equations of state are useful in describing the properties of fluids, mixtures of fluids, solids, and the interior of stars – WIKIPEDIA

## Coefficient of Lift Calculator  Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of Attack_curve

The lift coefficient (CL) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area. A lifting body is a foil or a complete foil-bearing body such as a fixed-wing aircraft. CL is a function of the angle of the body to the flow, its Reynolds number and its Mach number. The section lift coefficient refers to the dynamic lift characteristics of a two-dimensional foil section, with the reference area replaced by the foil chord – WIKIPEDIA

## Coefficient of Drag Calculator  Drag Coefficient of Different Shape

In fluid dynamics, the coefficient of drag is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation in which a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area – WIKIPEDIA