The rate at which an aircraft executes a turn expressed in degrees per second. It’s function of velocity, load factor. Its also ratio of velocity and radius.

Where n- load factor

V- velocity

The rate at which an aircraft executes a turn expressed in degrees per second. It’s function of velocity, load factor. Its also ratio of velocity and radius.

Where n- load factor

V- velocity

Turn radius is the horizontal distance that an aircraft uses to turn. Its function of airspeed and load factor. It’s SI unit is meter.

Where V= velocity

n= load factor

g= acceleration

Drag force is parallel to the local velocity direction. Drag force working like friction force in the any system. Drag force is depends upon the Shape of the body, flow velocity, density & etc. Its SI unit is Newton.

Where ρ- Density

V- Velocity

Cd- Drag coefficient

S- Wing surface area

Lift force is perpendicular to the local flow direction. Lift force working like bouncy force in liquid. Its SI unit is Newton.

Where ρ= density

V= velocity

Cl= lift coefficient

S= wing surface area

Minimum Thrust required when lift to drag is maximum. It’s directly proportional to the aircraft weight. Its SI unit is Newton.

Where W= weight

k= induced drag factor

Cd0= zero-lift drag coefficient